All You Need To Know About FOB

FOB is an important term related to the shipping of goods. It stands for “freight on board” or “free on board” indicating the designation when the ownership or liability of goods gets transferred from the seller to the buyer. The term FOB is often confusing for many in the shipping industry. However, it is crucial that both sellers and buyers must understand the proper FOB definition and scope so that they do not end up in losing dollars. This term determines the responsibility of the party for bearing the charges of freight and also decides the point of time when the shipment is passed over from the sellers to the buyers.

For instance, in case of international shipping, FOB indicates that the consignor is going to bear the loading cost and the transportation cost for sending the goods to the port. The consignee bears expenses related to insurance, ocean freight, unloading and the transportation cost of the goods from the port to the actual destination. The seller in this situation passes over the risk of the goods to the buyer when there is the loading of goods at the port for shipment.

Difference Between Origin And Destination:

FOB origin indicates that the ownership of the goods is transferred as soon as in gets out of the hands of the seller. If shipping of the goods is required then it is the buyer’s responsibility and he or she has to bear the expenses. This type of transaction is often referred to the city name like FOB Boston, FOB San Francisco, etc.

FOB destination, on the other hand, indicates that ownership of goods is transferred to the buyer when the original products reach the doorstep of the buyer. Here, the seller has to arrange for the transportation of the goods for which either he pays or charges the buyer for the expenses. The seller also has to be liable in case the goods suffer any damage while en route.

FOB comes more into the picture when there are wholesale or B2B shipments of large goods.

Use Of FOB In The Shipping Documents:

There are four ways in which the FOB term is included in the documents for shipping:

  • FOB (place of origin)- Freight Collect
  • FOB (place of origin)- Freight Prepaid
  • FOB (place of destination)- Freight Collect
  • FOB (place of destination)- Freight Prepaid

It is important that the shippers understand the FOB designations well especially in case of damages to the goods. Some of the receiving docks totally deny the delivery of the damaged goods without accepting the damage notation. However, when a shipment is designated properly, it is clear that the damage risk has to be borne by the seller or the buyer. In such cases, there is no question of confusion. Moreover, the Incoterm 2010 has also amended the definition of FOB which has made the sale contracts simpler and understandable by all.

Why Does FOB Matter?

The term is particularly important for those companies who are engaged in shipping huge quantities of goods. A clear concept of the FOB term helps in understanding the liability of the party regarding the safety in the delivery of the shipment. It also helps the buyer and the seller in knowing which party owns the materials at a particular point of the shipping cycle. This information is also helpful for the accountants who can maintain instant records of the transactions on the basis of FOB. Moreover, the term is also useful in proper logistics management.

Sales Tax And FOB:

If you are falling in the nexus of any state which charges selling taxes on shipment, then FOB can be your friend. For the packages which have FOB origin marked on them, the buyer pays the freight charges directly by contracting with a shipper. Thus, the seller has no role here. The buyer does not have to bear sales taxes as he has already paid the freight charges which most of the states consider exempted.

When people find the term quite complex to understand and interpret, they often take the help of professionals who are expert in the field. This ensures that you comply with the terms without any faults and the shipments get managed quite fast. FOB incoterms is another interesting aspect which the shipping industry must pay attention to and know about in details.

Software Development Life Cycle – Introduction Model Stages and Advantages

What is the Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC)?

SDLC or Software Development Life Cycle is essentially the process or phases of a model or methodology, which software engineers and developers follow in developing an application or software. In simpler words, it is a process consisting of a series of planned activities for planning, creating, testing, deploying and maintenance of software.

SDLC is often referred as software development process, as it consists of all tasks, which needs to be followed while developing an application or software. SDLC is followed within IT development companies to develop, alter, replace or enhance the performance of the software. ISO/IEC 12207 is an international standard for SDLC, which ensures high quality of the newly developed software. It also helps IT development companies in improving the overall quality of their software development services.

What are the major SDLC Models, followed in the IT Industry?

There are various SDLS models, which are currently followed in the IT Industry. Often referred as ‘Software Development Process Models’, all the process models follow unique software development steps, ensuring 100% success of the development projects.

The major software development life cycle models are-

  • Waterfall Model
  • Iterative Model
  • Spiral Model
  • V-Model
  • Big Bang Model

Other related models are Rapid Application Development (RAD), Prototype and Agile Models.

The advantages of choosing an appropriate Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC)-

  • Increased Product Quality
  • Increased Development Speed
  • Improved Client Relations
  • Improved Tracking & Control
  • Decreased Project Risks
  • Decreased Project Management Overhead

What are the different stages of SDLC?

Stage 1:

Planning and Requirement Analysis

This is the most important stage in the SDLC. This stage needs input from the customers, sales team, industry experts, a marketing team and their survey reports. After which, senior business managers and developers of a software development company plan the project approach and the development model.

Stage 2:

Designing

After the analysis of requirements and finalizing the Design Document Specification (DDS), the product architecture is designed by an expert team. This architecture has to stand upon various parameters such as budget, time, product robustness, risk assessment and design modularity, after which it is considered for the development.

Stage 3:

Development

The actual development of the software or application starts at this stage. The team of engineers and developers follow the coding guidelines set by the organization and use different tools for code generation. The programming code is generated as per the details documented in the DDS. The developers use different high level programming languages as per the requirement.

Stage 4:

Testing

In this stage, the final product goes through a pre-defined road of testing, where defects or bugs in the product are reported and then fixed by the developers. This stage ensures that the final product meets the highest quality standards, which are accepted worldwide.

Stage 5:

Deployment

At this stage, the final product is deployed at the client base. At times, the software is integrated with the client’s current application and database. All the deployment and integration works are done under the guidance of expert software engineers and developers.

Stage 6:

Maintenance & Support

Most of the reputed IT development companies also provide complete maintenance and technical support, post deployment of the final product at client base.

Attractive Guess Handbags – New Collection

Every women in this world wants to look pretty, stylish, elegant and fashionable. To complete their entire look, women spend hours and hours shopping for their dresses, shoes and other accessories. If we are talking about fashion and style, we cannot forget to mention how important handbags are. A handbag is not only a fashion accessory, it is indeed a necessity.

Guess is a well known and a famous brand. Like other big brands, Guess is not very expensive and many women can afford to buy an original guess handbag as well as a replica. If you go through the wardrobe of a fashion conscious woman, you will definitely find a huge variety of Guess handbags. This brand is not only famous for handbags but for other accessories as well.

Guess has an amazing collection of handbags and most of the people who love to carry branded handbags do not have to compromise on replicas because Guess is easily affordable. You can find perfect quality, design, and material in Guess handbags. Guess has made it easy for people to buy perfect designer handbags without having to worry about the cost.

Guess has the most attractive and hot collection of handbags. They have a huge range of handbags, purses and bags. It is impossible to find so much variety at reasonable prices. The new collection of Guess handbags is welcomed by people who are aware of fashion and can acknowledge good and stylish stuff. The latest collection of Guess handbags is a mixture of contemporary and luxury designs. The collection also consists of bags with bohemian and traditional looks.

The new collection of Guess handbags has made the leather handbags popular once again. You can find a huge variety of leather purses, bags and handbags. Guess handbags are one of the most popular handbags and women look forward to their new collection every year. Satchels offered by Guess are among the most popular handbags and they are available in different styles, colors and textures.

If you are more of a casual person, the new collection offers Hobo bag from Guess. This bag has been specially designed for casual people and casual functions. If you are going to a formal event, you can find a huge collection of formal handbags as well. Another famous bag from Guess is Gelato handbags, which are very popular among students. Women love it because it has a perfect pink colour to offer.

If you are a huge Guess handbags fan, you can obviously differentiate between the original and a fake one. If you do not want to be deceived, make sure before buying that you are purchasing an original Guess. The best way to confirm is through the Guess website. Their official website displays the whole new range of handbags and if a design it is not available on the website, it is not an original Guess handbag.

Guess handbags have everything to offer to fashion conscious people. The new collection is outstanding as it has a lot of new designs, textures, and colors. The handbags are durable and stylish and the best thing is that they are not very expensive, which means anyone who is fashion conscious can buy a branded handbag.

Performing a Public Records Search For Ohio

With one of the largest universities in the world and an incredible amount of diversity, Ohio is a wonderful place to live and a great place to request vital records. The founding fathers here understand how important it is to keep government open and honest and the laws on the books here are aimed at keeping things that way. According to state law, records requests have to be filled in a reasonable period of time and the requesting party can determine the medium in which records are delivered.

There is also strict word in the law that helps to keep costs down so that everyone can request copies of vital records. According to the state website, vital records cost $ 16.50 per copy and can be sent anywhere in the United States. All records requests in the state of Ohio go through the capital in Columbus. Corporate trademark records, sales tax records, hunting and fishing license records and more are all located in the state capital, which is also the location for Ohio State University.

Currently, there is no state-managed online database governing vital records in Ohio. Much has been made recently in the state media about the creation of such a database since other states have had them up and running for years. With Ohio's population of over 11 and a half million people, it is understandable why such a database has not been put online, but once it is, ordering records from the Buckeye State will be easier than ever.

You can still retrieve a record online from the state of Ohio when you use Records Project. Tap into the most powerful public records database on the Internet when you use the Records Project to locate and order the public records you need. Do not go another day without the records you need to make your life complete; order today